A solar pump uses power derived from sunlight that is converted into electrical power by Solar Photo Voltaic (SPV) modules. These modules give higher power output in the afternoons and lower power output in the mornings and evenings depending on the sun's position. As a result, a solar pump works on varying power input and gives varying water output at a given pump head. Conversely, an electric or diesel powered pumpset works on constant power input giving a constant water output at a given head.
The most important parameters to select a solar pump are:
Quantity of water needed or available at source
Location - The location is important because solar energy varies from area to area, and sizing of solar panels depends on the solar energy in that area.
Components of a typical solar pumping system
A solar photovoltaic (SPV) water pumping system consists of:
- Capacity in the range of 200 Watt to 5 KWp.
- Mounted on a suitable structure with a provision of tracking the sun
Motor Pump Set (surface or submersible):
- A.C. Induction Motor Pump set with a suitable Inverter
- Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)
- Controls / Protections
Interconnecting Cables and "On-Off" switch.
5. Foundation set (consisting of foundation bolts and mounting structure for Solar panel and Controller
6. Earthing kit
Motors for the solar pump sets :
Up to 2 HP : 120 V, 3-phase A.C, 50 Hz induction motors as standard, working with varying frequencies according to the sun's intensity.
From 3 to 7.5 HP : 415 V, 3-phase A.C, 50 Hz induction motors as standard
(customized pumps, with voltages other than 415 V and frequencies varying up to 60 Hz, can also be supplied against special customers requirements).
Advantages of PEW Solar pump Controller:
PEW Solar pumps come with a triple mode maximum power point tracking (MPPT) feature. Under this, the pump, motor and solar modules are all made to run in the most optimum efficiency zone automatically. With variation in sun intensity, as motor tends to get underloaded, an electronic correction is applied to ensure maximisation of motor efficiency. Thus, efficiency of solar panels, pump and motor are maximised.
This is facilitated by a Solar Pump Controller (designed as per IEC 61683) and tested by NABL/BIS accredited laboratory as specified by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Govt. of India, under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM).
The Controller has following safety features incorporated in them:-
- Sensor-less Dry run protection
- Under voltage and over voltage protection
- Reverse polarity protection
- Soft start for the ac induction motors
Principle of Operation of Solar Pump Controller
Solar power is converted into varying DC power by solar PV modules, depending on changing sun intensities during the day. This DC power is converted into 3-phase AC power which drives the AC induction motor pump set directly. As a result, battery and battery charger are both eliminated.
Dual Mode Unit - This option enables the user to run the same pump with either solar power or grid power, whichever is available.
Battery charger cum booster unit - This enables diverting low solar power input, produced by solar modules in the mornings and evenings (which make it difficult to run a pump), to charge appropriately sized batteries, which can then be used to power CFLs, fans, TVs, etc. in the night
Flexible output unit (3 ph./ 1ph. AC output) - If the pump is not required to be run during some part of daylight hours, the user can turn the rotary switch on the SPCU to the single phase AC position and operate a few CFLs, fans, TVs, computers etc. (This unique optional feature is provided for smaller pumps upto 2hp
- No requirement of conventional grid electricity
- Highly dependable and robust
- Easy to carry, operate and maintain as it has a lightweight body
- Eco-friendly and no fuel costs
- Uses free solar energy
- Low maintenance costs
Provide water supply to-
- 1. Villages, schools, hospitals, homes etc.
- 2. Tribal settlements and other far flung areas
- 3. Rural schemes (PHED)
- 4. Resorts, hotels and farmhouses
- 5. Animal farms and poultries
- 6. Housing societies and apartments - from underground water tanks to overhead reservoirs
- 7. Farms, fields and greenhouses
- 8. Corporate/ industrial parks and gardens (auto watering without manual intervention)
- 9. Micro-irrigaton.